What makes a smart machine intelligent depends on the type of artificial intelligence used — machine learning or deep learning. The terms are often used interchangeably, but the techniques are different.
At a high level, artificial intelligence is the general field focused on using software to make machines intelligent, with the goal of emulating a human being’s unique reasoning abilities. Machine learning uses algorithms to discover patterns and generate insights from the data. Machine learning uses several techniques such as deep learning, regression analysis, Bayesian networks, logic programming and clustering to implement artificial intelligence into a system.
Deep learning is a subfield of machine learning that mimics the neural networks in the human brain by creating an artificial neural network (ANN). Like the human brain solving a problem, the software takes inputs, processes them and generates an output. This method uses weights that are adjusted through a training program to teach the ANN how to properly respond to inputs. So more repetitive teaching makes the ANN stronger and therefore better at identification or prediction. It is like a child learning to recognize the alphabet or multiplication table.